无法编译或链接调用c函数的yasm程序

Failed to compile or link yasm program that call c function

When try to call c function from assembly code (yasm) on linux (x86-64), it failed to execute.


Code

function_call_c.asm:

; yasm assembly program, instruction - call c function
; compile: yasm -f elf64 function_call_c.asm -g dwarf2 && ld function_call_c.o -lc
; execute: ./a.out

section .data
msg_format db "hello"

section .text
extern printf
global _start

_start:
    lea rdi, [msg_format]
    call printf


_exit:
    ; exit
    mov eax,1
    mov ebx,5
    int 0x80

Compile:

yasm -f elf64 function_call_c.asm -g dwarf2 && ld function_call_c.o -lc

When execute:

It tips:

bash: ./a.out: No such file or directory

but a.out do exists, and has execution permission.

Using objdump, get information of executable:

a.out:     file format elf64-x86-64


Disassembly of section .interp:

0000000000400158 <.interp>:
  400158:   2f                      (bad)  
  400159:   6c                      insb   (%dx),%es:(%rdi)
  40015a:   69 62 2f 6c 64 36 34    imul   $0x3436646c,0x2f(%rdx),%esp
  400161:   2e 73 6f                jae,pn 4001d3 <printf@plt-0x4d>
  400164:   2e 31 00                xor    %eax,%cs:(%rax)

Disassembly of section .hash:

0000000000400168 <.hash>:
  400168:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  40016a:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  40016c:   02 00                   add    (%rax),%al
  40016e:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  400170:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
    ...

Disassembly of section .dynsym:

0000000000400180 <.dynsym>:
    ...
  400198:   0b 00                   or     (%rax),%eax
  40019a:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  40019c:   12 00                   adc    (%rax),%al
    ...

Disassembly of section .dynstr:

00000000004001b0 <.dynstr>:
  4001b0:   00 6c 69 62             add    %ch,0x62(%rcx,%rbp,2)
  4001b4:   63 2e                   movslq (%rsi),%ebp
  4001b6:   73 6f                   jae    400227 <printf@plt+0x7>
  4001b8:   2e 36 00 70 72          cs add %dh,%cs:%ss:0x72(%rax)
  4001bd:   69 6e 74 66 00 47 4c    imul   $0x4c470066,0x74(%rsi),%ebp
  4001c4:   49                      rex.WB
  4001c5:   42                      rex.X
  4001c6:   43 5f                   rex.XB pop %r15
  4001c8:   32 2e                   xor    (%rsi),%ch
  4001ca:   32 2e                   xor    (%rsi),%ch
  4001cc:   35                      .byte 0x35
    ...

Disassembly of section .gnu.version:

00000000004001ce <.gnu.version>:
  4001ce:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001d0:   02 00                   add    (%rax),%al

Disassembly of section .gnu.version_r:

00000000004001d8 <.gnu.version_r>:
  4001d8:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  4001da:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  4001dc:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  4001de:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001e0:   10 00                   adc    %al,(%rax)
  4001e2:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001e4:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001e6:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001e8:   75 1a                   jne    400204 <printf@plt-0x1c>
  4001ea:   69 09 00 00 02 00       imul   $0x20000,(%rcx),%ecx
  4001f0:   12 00                   adc    (%rax),%al
  4001f2:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001f4:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
    ...

Disassembly of section .rela.plt:

00000000004001f8 <.rela.plt>:
  4001f8:   a8 03                   test   $0x3,%al
  4001fa:   60                      (bad)  
  4001fb:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001fd:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  4001ff:   00 07                   add    %al,(%rdi)
  400201:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  400203:   00 01                   add    %al,(%rcx)
    ...

Disassembly of section .plt:

0000000000400210 <printf@plt-0x10>:
  400210:   ff 35 82 01 20 00       pushq  0x200182(%rip)        # 600398 <_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_+0x8>
  400216:   ff 25 84 01 20 00       jmpq   *0x200184(%rip)        # 6003a0 <_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_+0x10>
  40021c:   0f 1f 40 00             nopl   0x0(%rax)

0000000000400220 <printf@plt>:
  400220:   ff 25 82 01 20 00       jmpq   *0x200182(%rip)        # 6003a8 <_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_+0x18>
  400226:   68 00 00 00 00          pushq  $0x0
  40022b:   e9 e0 ff ff ff          jmpq   400210 <printf@plt-0x10>

Disassembly of section .text:

0000000000400230 <_start>:
  400230:   48 8d 3c 25 b0 03 60    lea    0x6003b0,%rdi
  400237:   00 
  400238:   e8 e3 ff ff ff          callq  400220 <printf@plt>

000000000040023d <_exit>:
  40023d:   b8 01 00 00 00          mov    $0x1,%eax
  400242:   bb 05 00 00 00          mov    $0x5,%ebx
  400247:   cd 80                   int    $0x80

Disassembly of section .dynamic:

0000000000600250 <_DYNAMIC>:
  600250:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  600252:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600254:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600256:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600258:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  60025a:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60025c:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60025e:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600260:   04 00                   add    $0x0,%al
  600262:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600264:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600266:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600268:   68 01 40 00 00          pushq  $0x4001
  60026d:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60026f:   00 05 00 00 00 00       add    %al,0x0(%rip)        # 600275 <_DYNAMIC+0x25>
  600275:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600277:   00 b0 01 40 00 00       add    %dh,0x4001(%rax)
  60027d:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60027f:   00 06                   add    %al,(%rsi)
  600281:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600283:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600285:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600287:   00 80 01 40 00 00       add    %al,0x4001(%rax)
  60028d:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60028f:   00 0a                   add    %cl,(%rdx)
  600291:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600293:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600295:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600297:   00 1e                   add    %bl,(%rsi)
  600299:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60029b:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60029d:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60029f:   00 0b                   add    %cl,(%rbx)
  6002a1:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002a3:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002a5:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002a7:   00 18                   add    %bl,(%rax)
  6002a9:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002ab:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002ad:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002af:   00 15 00 00 00 00       add    %dl,0x0(%rip)        # 6002b5 <_DYNAMIC+0x65>
    ...
  6002bd:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002bf:   00 03                   add    %al,(%rbx)
  6002c1:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002c3:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002c5:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002c7:   00 90 03 60 00 00       add    %dl,0x6003(%rax)
  6002cd:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002cf:   00 02                   add    %al,(%rdx)
  6002d1:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002d3:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002d5:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002d7:   00 18                   add    %bl,(%rax)
  6002d9:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002db:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002dd:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002df:   00 14 00                add    %dl,(%rax,%rax,1)
  6002e2:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002e4:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002e6:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002e8:   07                      (bad)  
  6002e9:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002eb:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002ed:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002ef:   00 17                   add    %dl,(%rdi)
  6002f1:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002f3:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002f5:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002f7:   00 f8                   add    %bh,%al
  6002f9:   01 40 00                add    %eax,0x0(%rax)
  6002fc:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  6002fe:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600300:   fe                      (bad)  
  600301:   ff                      (bad)  
  600302:   ff 6f 00                ljmpq  *0x0(%rdi)
  600305:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600307:   00 d8                   add    %bl,%al
  600309:   01 40 00                add    %eax,0x0(%rax)
  60030c:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60030e:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600310:   ff                      (bad)  
  600311:   ff                      (bad)  
  600312:   ff 6f 00                ljmpq  *0x0(%rdi)
  600315:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600317:   00 01                   add    %al,(%rcx)
  600319:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60031b:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60031d:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  60031f:   00 f0                   add    %dh,%al
  600321:   ff                      (bad)  
  600322:   ff 6f 00                ljmpq  *0x0(%rdi)
  600325:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  600327:   00 ce                   add    %cl,%dh
  600329:   01 40 00                add    %eax,0x0(%rax)
    ...

Disassembly of section .got.plt:

0000000000600390 <_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_>:
  600390:   50                      push   %rax
  600391:   02 60 00                add    0x0(%rax),%ah
    ...
  6003a8:   26 02 40 00             add    %es:0x0(%rax),%al
  6003ac:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
    ...

Disassembly of section .data:

00000000006003b0 <msg_format>:
  6003b0:   68 65 6c 6c 6f          pushq  $0x6f6c6c65

Disassembly of section .debug_aranges:

0000000000000000 <.debug_aranges>:
   0:   2c 00                   sub    $0x0,%al
   2:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   4:   02 00                   add    (%rax),%al
   6:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   8:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   a:   08 00                   or     %al,(%rax)
   c:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   e:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  10:   30 02                   xor    %al,(%rdx)
  12:   40 00 00                add    %al,(%rax)
  15:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  17:   00 19                   add    %bl,(%rcx)
    ...

Disassembly of section .debug_info:

0000000000000000 <.debug_info>:
   0:   85 00                   test   %eax,(%rax)
   2:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   4:   02 00                   add    (%rax),%al
   6:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   8:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   a:   08 01                   or     %al,(%rcx)
   c:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   e:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  10:   30 02                   xor    %al,(%rdx)
  12:   40 00 00                add    %al,(%rax)
  15:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  17:   00 49 02                add    %cl,0x2(%rcx)
  1a:   40 00 00                add    %al,(%rax)
  1d:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  1f:   00 66 75                add    %ah,0x75(%rsi)
  22:   6e                      outsb  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  23:   63 74 69 6f             movslq 0x6f(%rcx,%rbp,2),%esi
  27:   6e                      outsb  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  28:   5f                      pop    %rdi
  29:   63 61 6c                movslq 0x6c(%rcx),%esp
  2c:   6c                      insb   (%dx),%es:(%rdi)
  2d:   5f                      pop    %rdi
  2e:   63 2e                   movslq (%rsi),%ebp
  30:   61                      (bad)  
  31:   73 6d                   jae    a0 <printf@plt-0x400180>
  33:   00 2f                   add    %ch,(%rdi)
  35:   6d                      insl   (%dx),%es:(%rdi)
  36:   6e                      outsb  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  37:   74 2f                   je     68 <printf@plt-0x4001b8>
  39:   73 74                   jae    af <printf@plt-0x400171>
  3b:   61                      (bad)  
  3c:   72 2f                   jb     6d <printf@plt-0x4001b3>
  3e:   67 69 74 5f 72 65 70    imul   $0x736f7065,0x72(%edi,%ebx,2),%esi
  45:   6f 73 
  47:   69 74 6f 72 79 2f 77    imul   $0x6f772f79,0x72(%rdi,%rbp,2),%esi
  4e:   6f 
  4f:   72 6b                   jb     bc <printf@plt-0x400164>
  51:   73 70                   jae    c3 <printf@plt-0x40015d>
  53:   61                      (bad)  
  54:   63 65 2f                movslq 0x2f(%rbp),%esp
  57:   61                      (bad)  
  58:   73 73                   jae    cd <printf@plt-0x400153>
  5a:   65                      gs
  5b:   6d                      insl   (%dx),%es:(%rdi)
  5c:   62                      (bad)  
  5d:   6c                      insb   (%dx),%es:(%rdi)
  5e:   79 5f                   jns    bf <printf@plt-0x400161>
  60:   77 6f                   ja     d1 <printf@plt-0x40014f>
  62:   72 6b                   jb     cf <printf@plt-0x400151>
  64:   70 6c                   jo     d2 <printf@plt-0x40014e>
  66:   61                      (bad)  
  67:   63 65 2f                movslq 0x2f(%rbp),%esp
  6a:   79 61                   jns    cd <printf@plt-0x400153>
  6c:   73 6d                   jae    db <printf@plt-0x400145>
  6e:   2f                      (bad)  
  6f:   69 6e 73 74 72 75 63    imul   $0x63757274,0x73(%rsi),%ebp
  76:   74 69                   je     e1 <printf@plt-0x40013f>
  78:   6f                      outsl  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  79:   6e                      outsb  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  7a:   2f                      (bad)  
  7b:   00 79 61                add    %bh,0x61(%rcx)
  7e:   73 6d                   jae    ed <printf@plt-0x400133>
  80:   20 31                   and    %dh,(%rcx)
  82:   2e 32 2e                xor    %cs:(%rsi),%ch
  85:   30 00                   xor    %al,(%rax)
  87:   01                      .byte 0x1
  88:   80                      .byte 0x80

Disassembly of section .debug_abbrev:

0000000000000000 <.debug_abbrev>:
   0:   01 11                   add    %edx,(%rcx)
   2:   00 10                   add    %dl,(%rax)
   4:   06                      (bad)  
   5:   11 01                   adc    %eax,(%rcx)
   7:   12 01                   adc    (%rcx),%al
   9:   03 08                   add    (%rax),%ecx
   b:   1b 08                   sbb    (%rax),%ecx
   d:   25 08 13 05 00          and    $0x51308,%eax
    ...

Disassembly of section .debug_line:

0000000000000000 <.debug_line>:
   0:   47 00 00                rex.RXB add %r8b,(%r8)
   3:   00 02                   add    %al,(%rdx)
   5:   00 2a                   add    %ch,(%rdx)
   7:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
   9:   00 01                   add    %al,(%rcx)
   b:   01 fb                   add    %edi,%ebx
   d:   0e                      (bad)  
   e:   0d 00 01 01 01          or     $0x1010100,%eax
  13:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  15:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  17:   01 00                   add    %eax,(%rax)
  19:   00 01                   add    %al,(%rcx)
  1b:   00 66 75                add    %ah,0x75(%rsi)
  1e:   6e                      outsb  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  1f:   63 74 69 6f             movslq 0x6f(%rcx,%rbp,2),%esi
  23:   6e                      outsb  %ds:(%rsi),(%dx)
  24:   5f                      pop    %rdi
  25:   63 61 6c                movslq 0x6c(%rcx),%esp
  28:   6c                      insb   (%dx),%es:(%rdi)
  29:   5f                      pop    %rdi
  2a:   63 2e                   movslq (%rsi),%ebp
  2c:   61                      (bad)  
  2d:   73 6d                   jae    9c <printf@plt-0x400184>
  2f:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  31:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  33:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  35:   09 02                   or     %eax,(%rdx)
  37:   30 02                   xor    %al,(%rdx)
  39:   40 00 00                add    %al,(%rax)
  3c:   00 00                   add    %al,(%rax)
  3e:   00 03                   add    %al,(%rbx)
  40:   0c 01                   or     $0x1,%al
  42:   83 5d 59 59             sbbl   $0x59,0x59(%rbp)
  46:   02 02                   add    (%rdx),%al
  48:   00 01                   add    %al,(%rcx)
  4a:   01                      .byte 0x1

Using readelf, get information of executable:

ELF Header:
  Magic:   7f 45 4c 46 02 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 
  Class:                             ELF64
  Data:                              2's complement, little endian
  Version:                           1 (current)
  OS/ABI:                            UNIX - System V
  ABI Version:                       0
  Type:                              EXEC (Executable file)
  Machine:                           Advanced Micro Devices X86-64
  Version:                           0x1
  Entry point address:               0x400230
  Start of program headers:          64 (bytes into file)
  Start of section headers:          1432 (bytes into file)
  Flags:                             0x0
  Size of this header:               64 (bytes)
  Size of program headers:           56 (bytes)
  Number of program headers:         5
  Size of section headers:           64 (bytes)
  Number of section headers:         21
  Section header string table index: 18

Section Headers:
  [Nr] Name              Type             Address           Offset
       Size              EntSize          Flags  Link  Info  Align
  [ 0]                   NULL             0000000000000000  00000000
       0000000000000000  0000000000000000           0     0     0
  [ 1] .interp           PROGBITS         0000000000400158  00000158
       000000000000000f  0000000000000000   A       0     0     1
  [ 2] .hash             HASH             0000000000400168  00000168
       0000000000000014  0000000000000004   A       3     0     8
  [ 3] .dynsym           DYNSYM           0000000000400180  00000180
       0000000000000030  0000000000000018   A       4     1     8
  [ 4] .dynstr           STRTAB           00000000004001b0  000001b0
       000000000000001e  0000000000000000   A       0     0     1
  [ 5] .gnu.version      VERSYM           00000000004001ce  000001ce
       0000000000000004  0000000000000002   A       3     0     2
  [ 6] .gnu.version_r    VERNEED          00000000004001d8  000001d8
       0000000000000020  0000000000000000   A       4     1     8
  [ 7] .rela.plt         RELA             00000000004001f8  000001f8
       0000000000000018  0000000000000018   A       3     8     8
  [ 8] .plt              PROGBITS         0000000000400210  00000210
       0000000000000020  0000000000000010  AX       0     0     16
  [ 9] .text             PROGBITS         0000000000400230  00000230
       0000000000000019  0000000000000000  AX       0     0     16
  [10] .eh_frame         PROGBITS         0000000000400250  00000250
       0000000000000000  0000000000000000   A       0     0     8
  [11] .dynamic          DYNAMIC          0000000000600250  00000250
       0000000000000140  0000000000000010  WA       4     0     8
  [12] .got.plt          PROGBITS         0000000000600390  00000390
       0000000000000020  0000000000000008  WA       0     0     8
  [13] .data             PROGBITS         00000000006003b0  000003b0
       0000000000000005  0000000000000000  WA       0     0     4
  [14] .debug_aranges    PROGBITS         0000000000000000  000003c0
       0000000000000030  0000000000000000           0     0     16
  [15] .debug_info       PROGBITS         0000000000000000  000003f0
       0000000000000089  0000000000000000           0     0     1
  [16] .debug_abbrev     PROGBITS         0000000000000000  00000479
       0000000000000014  0000000000000000           0     0     1
  [17] .debug_line       PROGBITS         0000000000000000  0000048d
       000000000000004b  0000000000000000           0     0     1
  [18] .shstrtab         STRTAB           0000000000000000  000004d8
       00000000000000bc  0000000000000000           0     0     1
  [19] .symtab           SYMTAB           0000000000000000  00000ad8
       00000000000002b8  0000000000000018          20    24     8
  [20] .strtab           STRTAB           0000000000000000  00000d90
       0000000000000078  0000000000000000           0     0     1
Key to Flags:
  W (write), A (alloc), X (execute), M (merge), S (strings), l (large)
  I (info), L (link order), G (group), T (TLS), E (exclude), x (unknown)
  O (extra OS processing required) o (OS specific), p (processor specific)

There are no section groups in this file.

Program Headers:
  Type           Offset             VirtAddr           PhysAddr
         FileSiz            MemSiz              Flags  Align
  PHDR           0x0000000000000040 0x0000000000400040 0x0000000000400040
         0x0000000000000118 0x0000000000000118  R E    8
  INTERP         0x0000000000000158 0x0000000000400158 0x0000000000400158
         0x000000000000000f 0x000000000000000f  R      1
      [Requesting program interpreter: /lib/ld64.so.1]
  LOAD           0x0000000000000000 0x0000000000400000 0x0000000000400000
         0x0000000000000250 0x0000000000000250  R E    200000
  LOAD           0x0000000000000250 0x0000000000600250 0x0000000000600250
         0x0000000000000165 0x0000000000000165  RW     200000
  DYNAMIC        0x0000000000000250 0x0000000000600250 0x0000000000600250
         0x0000000000000140 0x0000000000000140  RW     8

 Section to Segment mapping:
  Segment Sections...
   00     
   01     .interp 
   02     .interp .hash .dynsym .dynstr .gnu.version .gnu.version_r .rela.plt .plt .text 
   03     .dynamic .got.plt .data 
   04     .dynamic 

Dynamic section at offset 0x250 contains 15 entries:
  Tag        Type                         Name/Value
 0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libc.so.6]
 0x0000000000000004 (HASH)               0x400168
 0x0000000000000005 (STRTAB)             0x4001b0
 0x0000000000000006 (SYMTAB)             0x400180
 0x000000000000000a (STRSZ)              30 (bytes)
 0x000000000000000b (SYMENT)             24 (bytes)
 0x0000000000000015 (DEBUG)              0x0
 0x0000000000000003 (PLTGOT)             0x600390
 0x0000000000000002 (PLTRELSZ)           24 (bytes)
 0x0000000000000014 (PLTREL)             RELA
 0x0000000000000017 (JMPREL)             0x4001f8
 0x000000006ffffffe (VERNEED)            0x4001d8
 0x000000006fffffff (VERNEEDNUM)         1
 0x000000006ffffff0 (VERSYM)             0x4001ce
 0x0000000000000000 (NULL)               0x0

Relocation section '.rela.plt' at offset 0x1f8 contains 1 entries:
  Offset          Info           Type           Sym. Value    Sym. Name + Addend
0000006003a8  000100000007 R_X86_64_JUMP_SLO 0000000000000000 printf + 0

The decoding of unwind sections for machine type Advanced Micro Devices X86-64 is not currently supported.

Symbol table '.dynsym' contains 2 entries:
   Num:    Value          Size Type    Bind   Vis      Ndx Name
     0: 0000000000000000     0 NOTYPE  LOCAL  DEFAULT  UND 
     1: 0000000000000000     0 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT  UND printf@GLIBC_2.2.5 (2)

Symbol table '.symtab' contains 29 entries:
   Num:    Value          Size Type    Bind   Vis      Ndx Name
     0: 0000000000000000     0 NOTYPE  LOCAL  DEFAULT  UND 
     1: 0000000000400158     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    1 
     2: 0000000000400168     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    2 
     3: 0000000000400180     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    3 
     4: 00000000004001b0     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    4 
     5: 00000000004001ce     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    5 
     6: 00000000004001d8     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    6 
     7: 00000000004001f8     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    7 
     8: 0000000000400210     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    8 
     9: 0000000000400230     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT    9 
    10: 0000000000400250     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   10 
    11: 0000000000600250     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   11 
    12: 0000000000600390     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   12 
    13: 00000000006003b0     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   13 
    14: 0000000000000000     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   14 
    15: 0000000000000000     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   15 
    16: 0000000000000000     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   16 
    17: 0000000000000000     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT   17 
    18: 0000000000000000     0 FILE    LOCAL  DEFAULT  ABS function_call_c.asm
    19: 000000000040023d     0 NOTYPE  LOCAL  DEFAULT    9 _exit
    20: 00000000006003b0     0 NOTYPE  LOCAL  DEFAULT   13 msg_format
    21: 0000000000000000     0 FILE    LOCAL  DEFAULT  ABS 
    22: 0000000000600250     0 OBJECT  LOCAL  DEFAULT   11 _DYNAMIC
    23: 0000000000600390     0 OBJECT  LOCAL  DEFAULT   12 _GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_
    24: 00000000006003b5     0 NOTYPE  GLOBAL DEFAULT   13 _edata
    25: 0000000000000000     0 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT  UND printf@@GLIBC_2.2.5
    26: 00000000006003b8     0 NOTYPE  GLOBAL DEFAULT   13 _end
    27: 0000000000400230     0 NOTYPE  GLOBAL DEFAULT    9 _start
    28: 00000000006003b5     0 NOTYPE  GLOBAL DEFAULT   13 __bss_start

Histogram for bucket list length (total of 1 buckets):
 Length  Number     % of total  Coverage
      0  0          (  0.0%)
      1  1          (100.0%)    100.0%

Version symbols section '.gnu.version' contains 2 entries:
 Addr: 00000000004001ce  Offset: 0x0001ce  Link: 3 (.dynsym)
  000:   0 (*local*)       2 (GLIBC_2.2.5)

Version needs section '.gnu.version_r' contains 1 entries:
 Addr: 0x00000000004001d8  Offset: 0x0001d8  Link: 4 (.dynstr)
  000000: Version: 1  File: libc.so.6  Cnt: 1
  0x0010:   Name: GLIBC_2.2.5  Flags: none  Version: 2

The questions are:

  • Why it failed to execute, is the code wrong? or I compiled it in a wrong way?

Just ran your example and encountered the same issue.
The cause is my case was an incorrect dynamic linker (ELF interpreter).
To verify this is the issue, type file ./a.out you should be getting something similiar to the following output:
a.out: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib/ld64.so.1, not stripped

ld's default choice of dynamic linker (/lib/ld64.so.1) doesn't exist on most Linux systems, hence the problem. You could use patchelf (apt-get install patchelf) and the following command to correct this:

patchelf --set-interpreter [path_to_interpreter] ./a.out

You can get the correct path you should use as the ELF interpreter by typing file /bin/ls - the standard dynamic linker path will be printed. (Also, readelf can print that and more).


The best way is to use ld's -dynamic-linker flag to set the INTERP section in the elf header correctly in the first place.

See also this answer for more details on building / linking asm into static or dynamic binaries, with or without libc.

On my machine, file a.out would print a.out: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), not stripped. And, file /usr/bin/ld would print /usr/bin/ld.bfd, the ld program works for other assembly code that don't call a c function, so ld program itself exists & works I guess.
Do this file: /lib/ld64.so.1 exist on your machine?
@EricWang : That is because the C runtime is being included by default when you use GCC. Either change your _start label to main (the C runtime includes a _start label that does initialization and calls the label main that you provide. If you wish to bypass the C runtime startup you'll have to tell GCC to not include them. Try gcc function_call_c.o -nostartfiles .
@EricWang Changing _start to main and using GCC to link to the C runtime is generally the preferred mechanism. This properly sets up the C runtime environment (Some of the C library requires this to occur to work properly). You can also use ret to return from main to exit your program. If you do change _startto main and use GCC you can link it with GCC like this:gcc function_call_c.o
@EricWang: If you'd actually read the link I included, you would have seen a full explanation of the various ways you can use gcc (and nasm or yasm) to link 32 or 64bit asm code. Assemble it with yasm, link it with gcc. That answer even has the script I use to assemble and link static binaries, from an asm source that defines _start.

(As suggested by @Peter Cordes, I'd like put an answer that summarize the comments under question & other answer, so that make it more clear for future searcher.)

Issues in the original code & compile/link strategy:

  • Better use main instead of _start. Reason: because (as originally mentioned in @Michael Petch's comment), the C runtime includes a _start label, this is conflict, when link using gcc. Even though this could be fixed via adding -nostartfiles option to gcc when link, but a simple gcc xxx.o is simpler. So, just use main instead of _start.

  • Exit main via ret instead of int 0x80. Reason: because (as originally mentioned in @Michael Petch's comment), ret will help to flush the stdout, while int 0x80 won't, so using int 0x80 won't see the hello world in console. Calling C function exit is another solution, but it's an extra function call to c, so using ret is more efficient, it will return to _start from c runtime.

  • Better link via gcc instead of ld. Reason: because (as mentioned in @Peter Cordes and @Michael Petch's comments), C runtime is being included by default in gcc, so you don't need to add option like -lc when using gcc. But ld don't include C runtime. So, again, using gcc makes it simpler.

For more details, please refer to the comments under question and other answer.


(So, according to above explanation.)

Steps to fix the issue:

  • Change _start to main, in assembly source code,
  • Exit program via ret instead of int 0x80.
  • Compile via yasm, e.g yasm -f elf64 function_call_c.asm -g dwarf2
  • Link via gcc, e.g gcc function_call_c.o

(And here is the new version of code.)

function_call_c.asm:

; yasm assembly program, instruction - call c function
; compile: yasm -f elf64 function_call_c.asm -g dwarf2 && gcc function_call_c.o
; execute: ./a.out
; check printed char count (immediately after execution): echo $?

section .data
msg_format db 'hello world',0x0A,0

section .text
extern printf
extern exit
global main

main:
    mov rax, 0
    lea rdi, [msg_format]
    call printf

_exit:
    ; eax now contains count of chars printed, due to previous 'printf' call,
    ret; return from main, this will flush the output,
I mentioned it briefly in one of my comments. Once you start using the C runtime and its _start label is the entry point, it will eventually call main after initialization. Because main is CALLed you can treat main just like any other function, and do a ret to return instead of call exit. The return value is placed into EAX before ret. You can't do a ret from _start since there is no C runtime (no return address on the stack) to go back to. Using ret will also flush the buffers before terminating.
@MichaelPetch Answer updated, now I understand relationship between _start & main better, great tip.